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I'm software developer and microISV, with a lot of passion to technologies.. having a fun writing code, writing blog posts and giving public speeches. For about 10 years of total experince I've been working in many branches of software development, including management and QA. I try to follow and adopt agile practices and signed up for software craftsmenship manifesto. Alexander is a DZone MVB and is not an employee of DZone and has posted 63 posts at DZone. You can read more from them at their website. View Full User Profile

Think Ahead, Think Logging

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When we develop an application, we have everything we need to understand the application's behavior. Debugger, traces, tests – all of this information is right in our hands. If something goes wrong, it’s not so hard to track the problem.

But the situation is completely different when the app leaves our development box and goes to production. In the best case, we’ll receive an email or tweet from a user, but typically problems remain in production silently, while customers just silently leave.

Preparing an application for production means preparing good error logging. I’m going to show you how to extend your Express.js with proper logs.

What it means to have good logs?

In my perspective, good logs are those satisfying the following criteria:

  • All unhandled errors are logged
  • Log records are comprehensive and clear
  • Logs are easily accessible
  • If critical error logged, developers have to be notified


Logger is object responsible to take some message or object and log it. The example of one,

var util = require('util');
var colors = require('colors');
var moment = require('moment');
var logger = {
  colorsMap: {
      'success': 'green',
      'warning': 'yellow',
      'err': 'red',
      'info': 'grey'
  success: function (message) {
      this.log('success', message);
  warning: function (message) {
      this.log('warning', message);
  error: function (message) {
      this.log('err', message);
  info: function (message) {
      this.log('info', message);
  log: function (type, message) {
      var record = this.timestamptMessage(util.format('%s: %s', type.toUpperCase(), this.formatMessage(message)));
  formatMessage: function (message) {
      return typeof message === 'string' ? message : JSON.stringify(message);
  timestamptMessage: function (message) {
      return util.format('[%s] %s', moment(), message);
module.exports = logger;

Logger could be used everywhere you need to get some info. But our ultimate goal is to be aware of all errors might appear in application.

Augmenting Express.js application with logs

We never know then error might appear. But, we can catch all unhandled errors + if some web request failed to complete with success code, we have to log that as well.

Handling “unhandled” errors

We can listen to process ‘uncaughtException’ event. It just placed in app.js file. The best place is just after require section and before any object is used.

process.on('uncaughtException', function (err) {
  logger.error({msg:'Uncaught exception', error:err, stack:err.stack});

From official docs,

Emitted when an exception bubbles all the way back to the event loop. If a listener is added for this exception, the default action (which is to print a stack trace and exit) will not occur.

So, we just redirecting that error to logger. Also, docs say following:

Don’t use it, use domains instead. If you do use it, restart your application after every unhandled exception!

I still not switched to domain version for that, need to consider that advice.

Anyway, this uncaughtException will give us only information typically about undefined variables used, that’s pretty simple to caught during development testing. More interesting stuff is what’s actually happening on runtime, while application handling HTTP requests.

Logging failing HTTP requests

Express.js power feature is middleware. It’s possible to do a lot of cool stuff based on middleware functions. We’ll utilize that feature to create a few middleware function that would allow to log all failed HTTP requests.

First one,

// have to be injected as last middlware function for all routes
function logErrors () {
  return function logErrors(err, req, res, next) {
      req.unhandledError = err;

Second one,

function logHttpErrors () {
  return function logHttpErrors (req, res, next) {
      var end = res.end;
      res.end = function (data, encoding) {
          var status = res.statusCode;
          var message = {
              url: res.req.url,
              headers: res.req.headers,
              status: status,
              body: req.body,
              params: req.params
          if (req.unhandledError) {
              message.error = req.unhandledError;
          if (warning(status)) {
          if (error(status)) {
 (res, data, encoding);
  function warning (status) {
      return status >= 400 && status < 500;
  function error (status) {
      return status >= 500;

Look a bit closer: logError() produces middleware function that expected to be the last in chain, and if previous function retured an error, it stores that error object in in requests. logHttpErrors() produces middleware function that would override response .end() function and logs warning or error, depending on response status code.

Let’s integrate to app.

logHttpErrors() could be put into app.configure() function,

  app.set('port', process.env.VCAP_APP_PORT || 3001);
  // ...
  // ...

It’s a bit more trickier with logError() function. As I said above, it have to be last callback in chain.

So, it’s only possible to apply it in app.configure() since the routes are not defined yet. Even it’s possible to manually add it to each endpoint manually, I don’t think it’s good idea, because it’s easy to forgot do that.

I came up to following solution,

// here .logError() will be added to end of chain
http.createServer(app).listen(app.get('port'), function() {
  var env = process.env.NODE_ENV || 'development';'Likeastore app listening on port ' + app.get('port') + ' ' + env + ' mongo: ' + config.connection);

And applyErrorLogging() function,

var middleware = require('../middleware');
function applyErrorLogging(app) {
  for (var verb in app.routes) {
      var routes = app.routes[verb];
  function patchRoute (route) {
module.exports = applyErrorLogging;

Now, it’s everything in place, so all 4xx are logged as warnings, all 5xx are logged as errors.

Move your logs to cloud

Simply logging information is not enough. While your application writes info to console on production machine, this information worthless to you. You have to put you logs to the place where is easily accessible.

There are few services like that. One of I recently hooked with in Logentries.

Logentries gives you API to submit information there + Dashboard, there logs can be viewed, search and analyzed.

logentries dashboard

Install node-logentries client,

$ npm install node-logentries --save

And now, we need to update logger, to not only console.log but send it to Logentries.

Will create Logentries client,

var log = logentries.logger({

Will extend existing logger and override current .log() function:

var logentriesLogger = (function (_super) {
  var child = {
      log: function (type, message) {
          _super.log(type, message);
          log.log(type, message);
  return _.extend(Object.create(_super), child);
module.exports = logentriesLogger;

Checkout this gist where you can see all things put together.

So, now wherever logger is used, logs will both shown to screen (which is cool for development) and submitted to Logentries (which is cool for production).

Setup notification on critical errors

If error appeared on production, developers attention should be there. Without good notification system, is too easy to skip the moment then error arises.

Again, it’s easy to do with Logentries. Just go to Alerts section and setup patterns of errors you interested and email addresses for notifications.

logentries alerts setup

Email is not only one option, you can setup for SMS or webhook for your app. So, anytime error or warning appeared you will be notified and take action on it.


I’ve used that for likeastore app I currently working on and it works just fine. Having such logs gave a lot of information after we went to private-beta phase. When you see how application behaves then real users start to use, it gives you good insights about fixes and improvements to apply.

Taking into account that approach above is very universal and easy to adopt, to it today.

Published at DZone with permission of Alexander Beletsky, author and DZone MVB. (source)

(Note: Opinions expressed in this article and its replies are the opinions of their respective authors and not those of DZone, Inc.)